Principal Associate Researcher

Prof. Marina Ritzarev

Principal Associate Researcher
    קורות חיים

    Professor Emerita Marina Ritzarev (b. 16 April 1946, Leningrad) is an Israeli musicologist. Following her career in St. Petersburg and Moscow, which included research in eighteenth-century Russian music and contemporary Russian music, work at the Archives department of the Central Museum of Musical Culture, and serving as a Deputy Director in the Centre of Musical Information at the USSR Composers' Union, she repatriated in Israel in 1990. Since 1992 she joined the Department of Music at Bar-Ilan University as a senior research fellow funded by the Israeli Ministry of Absorption. In 1997-2000 she worked at the Israeli Music Archive at Tel-Aviv University.

    Multicultural experience, studies in ethnomusicology, and the merging of Russian and Western musicological traditions enhanced new perspectives in her research. Subsequently, in addition to making her works on eighteen-century Russian music available for English-reading audiences, she developed a theory of musical vernaculars, contributed to the studies of Israeli art music and songs, and offered her hypotheses on parallelism in structures of sonata and folktale, as well as suggestions on hidden programs of Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 and Shostakovich’s Second Cello Concerto.

    Her activity included teaching many courses on music history and anthropology and supervising many graduate and postgraduate students. She served two terms as President of the Israeli Musicological Society and is a co-editor of Min-Ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online.


    (see also

    Russian music

    Eighteenth-century Russian music; Choral concerto; Dmitry Bortniansky; Maxim Berezovsky; Russian musical culture in general; Tchaikovsky; Soviet music; Sergei Slonimsky and Shostakovich.



    Vernacularity and nationalism in music; Music in immigrant communities; Jewish music.


    Music signification

    Textbook sonata form and Proppʼs morphology of fairy tale.

    CV, Publication and Academic Activities in "pdf"version


    (see also

    Graduate courses taught in 2002-2012:


    Composer, Performer and Audience in the Epochs of Baroque and Classicism

    Composer, Performer, Impresario and Audience in the Epochs of Romanticism and Modernity

    Music in the Mirror of Society: Introduction to the Anthropology of Music

    Music and Identity

    Music as Communication

    National Schools of Composition in the Eighteenth Century

    Ancient Greek Myth in the European Music

    Choral Music: its Genres and Function in the European Music

    Genre and Style in the European Music

    Symphony in the Twentieth Century

    Tchaikovsky as Composer and Man

            Russian Opera: Tradition and Challenges

            Russian Music in Exile

            Shostakovich: Biography and Hagiography

            Prokofiev, Shostakovich and the Paradoxes of Totalitarian System

            National, Nationalistic and Folk in Music


    CV, Publication and Academic Activities in "pdf"version


    (see also

    1979 1983 1987 1991
    1994 2006 2006 2012
    2013 2014 2015 2015


    Books in English


    The Paradox of Musical Vernaculars. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2023.

    Tchaikovskyʼs ʻPathétiqueʼ and Russian Culture. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014. 184 p. Hardback ISBN: 978-1-4724-2412-9; Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016 Paperback. ISBN 9781138250345

    Eighteenth-Century Russian Music. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006. 416 p. Hardback ISBN: 978-0-7546 3466-9. 2016 Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016 Paperback. ISBN: 9781138249462.



    Garment and Core: Jews and their Musical Experiences, Eds. E. Avitsur, M. Ritzarev, E. Seroussi. Bar-Ilan University Press. 2012. 399 p. ISBN: 9789652263995



    Rethinking J.S. Bach’s Musical Offering by Anatoly Milka. Translated from Russian by Marina Ritzarev. XXX; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019. 238 pp. ISBN13: 978-1-5275-3706-4

    Rethinking J.S. Bach’s The Art of Fugue by Anatoly Milka. Edited by Esti Sheinberg, translated from Russian by Marina Ritzarev. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2016. 262 pp. ISBN 9781472458865 ​



    Books in Russian

    Taina Pateticheskoy Chaikovskogo: o skrytoy programme Shaestoq Simfonii [Mystery of Tchaikovsky’s ʻPathétiqueʼ: on hidden program of the Sixth] Sain-Petersburg: Kompozitor, 2017. 176 pp. ISBN: 978-5-7379-0887-4

    Iosif Bardanashvili: Zhizn' v trekh izmereniakh (3D). Besedy s kompozitorom. [Josef Bardanashvili: Life in 3D. Conversations with the composer]. Tel-Aviv: VeDiScore, 2016. - 288 pp. ISBN 978-965-555-866-1. Hebrew version Tel-Aviv: JembaScore, 2021.

    Dmitry Bortniansky: Zhizn' i tvorchestvo kompozitora. 2nd edition, revised and extended. [Dmitry Bortniansky: Life and Work of the Composer, In Russian]. St. Petersburg: Compozitor, 2015. — 392 pp. ISBN 978-5-7379-0807-2

    Maxim Berezovsky. Zhizn' i tvorchestvo kompozitora [Maxim Berezovsky. Life and Work of the Composer], 2nd edition, revised and extended [In Russian]. St. Petersburg: Compozitor, 2013. 228 p. ISBN: 978-5-7379-0504-0

    Dukhovny kontsert v Rossii vtoroy poloviny XVIII veka [Sacred Concerto in Russia of the Late Eighteenth Century, in Russian].  St. Petersburg: Compozitor, 2006. 244 p. ISBN 5-7379-0311-7


    Kompozitor Sergei Slonimsky [The Composer Sergei Slonimsky, in Russian]. St. Petersburg: Sovetskiy Kompozitor, 1991. 271 p. ISBN: 5-85285-160-4 

    Russkaya muzyka XVIII veka [Russian Music of the 18th Century, in Russian]. Moscow: Znanie, 1987. 128 p.

    Kompozitor M. S. Berezovsky: zhizn' i tvorchestvo [The Composer M. S. Berezovsky: Life and Work, in Russian]. St. Petersburg: Muzyka, 1983. 142 p.

    Kompozitor D. Bortniansky. Zhizn' i tvorchestvo [The Composer D. Bortniansky: Life and Work, in Russian]. St. Petersburg: Muzyka, 1979. 256 p.


    Reference books

    The Israeli Music Archive: List of Collections. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, 1998.

    Music and Me - popular encyclopedia for youth [in Russian]. Moscow: Muzyka, 2014 (5th ed., 2006, 2000, 1998, 1994).

    Rachmaninoff’s Autographs in the Archives of the State Central Glinka Museum of Musical Culture [in Russian]. Moscow: Sovetskiy Kompozitor, 1980.


    Articles ​​​​​and chapters in books

    Was Shostakovich’s Second Cello Concerto a Hidden Homage? Arts 2024, 13(3), 80

    The Orthodox Church and Paradoxes of Russian Music History. Min-Ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online, Vol. 21, 2023. 67-91.

    Peut-être que la sonate veut un conte de fèes? Problemy Musical’noy Nauki / Music Scholarship No. 4 (2022): 107-116.

    Rothschild's Violin and a Russian Tune. Min-Ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online, Vol. 17, 2020, pp. 93-106.

    Musical Vernaculars and their Signifying Transformations. The Routledge Handbook of Music Signification. Eds Esti Sheinberg and William P. Dougherty. Routledge, 2020, pp. 209-222.

    Sarti in Russia. Giuseppe Sarti: Asthetik, Rezeption,Überlieferung. Eds Cristin Heitmann, Dörte Schmidt, and Christine Siegert. Schiengen, Edition Argus, 2019, pp. 236-243. Ukrainian version in Stepan Degtyarev ta yogo suchastniki: muzichniy klassitsism u Skhidniy Evropi, ed. Andriy Kutasevich.  Naukoviy Visnik Natsional'noi Muzichnoy Akademii Ukrainy imrni P.I. Chaikovskogo. vol. 107, Kiev, 2016, pp. 45-58.

    Chapter "Russia". The Cambridge Companion to the Harpsichord, ed. Mark Kroll. Cambridge, 2019, pp. 211-224.

    Singing Ethos, Pathos, and Ethnos: Three Generations, Four Israeli Eurovision Victories, 1978-2018. Nauka Televidenia, No. 14. 3, 2018, pp. 28-47.

    From the Cathedral to the Opera Stage. Vestnik of Saint-Petersburg University. Arts, vol. 7. Issue 2. (2017): 132-143.

    Josef Bardanashvili’s Journey to the End of the Millennium [in Russian]. Liber amicorum for Liudmila Kovnatskaya. Eds Olga Manulkina, Lidia Ader, Nina Drozdetskaya. St Petersburg: BiblioRossica, 2016, pp. С. 378-391. Hebrew version in Paimot, No. 4, 2020, pp. 129-143.

    Musical folklore: between nature and culture [in Russian]. Ot russkogo Serebryanogo veka k Novomu Renessansu. [From Russian Silver Age to the New Renaissance] Proceedings of International Forum toward 80s Anniversary of Sergei Slonimsky (4-7 April 2012).  Eds. R.N. Slonimskaya and R.G. Shitikova. St Petersburg, Lennex Corp. Edinbourgh, 2014, pp. 333-338.

    “King David and the Frog”. Musicological annual L proceedings (University of Ljubljana, L. 50, Št. 2 (2014), pp. 31-42). Russian version in Opera Musicologica, Но. 3 (33), 2017, pp. 5-20.

     “Between the Field and the Salon”. A Network of Significations: texts on music semiotics in honor of Raymond Monelle, ed. by Esti Sheinberg. Ashgate. 2012, pp. 35-45.

    “Conceptualizing the Vernacular in Music”. Garment and Core: Jews and their Musical Experiences, Eds. E. Avitsur, M. Ritzarev, E. Seroussi Bar-Ilan University Press. 2012. pp. 31-40.

    Evstigney Fomin. Modern Encyclopedia of Russian, Soviet, and Eurasian History (SMERSH) A Publication of Academic International Press. 2011. P.239-241.

    “Music and Food: cultural parallels of sign systems”. Before and After Music. Ed. Lina Navickaitė-Martinelli. Proceedings from the 10th International Congress on Musical Signification. Vilnius, 21-25 October 2008. Acta Semiotica Fennica xxxvii. Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre, Vilnius. Unweb Publications, Helsinki. International Semiotic Institute, Imatra, 2010. P. 278-286. Russian version in Art History in the Context of other Sciences in Modern World: Parallels and Interactions. Ed. Grigoriy Konson, Proceeding of the International Academic Conference, The Russian State Library, 21-26 of April, 2019. 2021 pp. 499-511.  

    (With Esti Sheinberg)'The Infinite Grace of Jesus': Massenet's 'Marie-Magdeleine' and Tchaikovsky's Blessed Tears”. Music and Letters 2010 / 91: 171-197.

    'The composer Josef Bardanashvili: his creative work in Israel' (In Russian): Zoloto galuta: dukhovnaya i kul’turnaya integratsiya russkoyazychnykh immigrantov v Izraile. Ed. Moshe Kenigshtein. Jerusalem-Moscow. Gesharim. 2009, pp. 375-388.

     ‘A Singing Peasant': An Historical Look at National Identity in Russian Music, in Min-ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online. Vol. 6, 2007-2008

    “The Augmented Second, Chagall’s Silhouettes and the Six-Pointed Star”, in Musica Judaica, vol. XVIII, 5766, 2005-2006, pp. 43-69.

     “Vladimir Propp’s theory of the fairy tale: Its relation to sonata form”, in Music and the Arts, Proceedings from ICMS 7. Ed. by Eero Tarasti, Paul Forsell and Richard Littlefield (Acta Semiotica Fennica XXIII, Approaches to Musical Semiotics 10). Helsinki: International Semiotics Institute, Hakapaino, 2006 pp. 178-184.


    “Rethinking Eighteen-Century Russian Music”, in Orbis XIII, collection of essays from the materials of the conference “Rethinking Interpretive Traditions in Musicology” (Tel-Aviv University, 1999). Eds. Shai Burstyn, Judith Cohen, Zohar Eitan, David Halperin, Dorit Tanai. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University Press, 2003, pp. 99-106.

    “Sergei Slonimsky and Russian ‘Unofficial Nationalism’ of 1960-80s”, in Schostakovitsch und die Folgen: Russische Music zwischen Anpassung und Protest (Shostakovich and the Consequences: Russian Music Between Adaptation and Protest). Eds. E. Kuhn, J. Nemtsov and A. Wehrmeyer. (Studia slavica musicologica, Bd. 32). Berlin: Verlag Ernst Kuhn, 2003, pp. 187-210.

    “Russian Music before Glinka”, in Min-ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online., Adena Portowitz, ed. 2002.

     “The Legacy of Late Eighteenth-Century Russian Spiritual Music: its Sources and Destiny”, in. Musikgeschichte zwischen Ost- and Westeuropa: Kirchenmusic—geistliche Music—religiöse Musik, Bericht der Konferenz Chemnitz 28-30 Oktober 1999. Eds. H. Loos and K-P. Koch. Studio, 2002 pp. 479-492.

    “Chant and Polyphony in Russia: Historical Aspects”, in The Dr Martinelli Music Collection (KU Leuven, University Archives); Musical Life in Collegiate Churches in the Low Countries and Europe; Chant and Polyphony, the Yearbook of Alamire Foundation 4. Eds. Bruno Bouckaert and Eugeen Schreurs. Belgium, Leuven: Musicpublishers Alamire, 2002, pp. 357-368.

    “The Italian Diaspora in Eighteenth-Century Russia” (co-author A. Porfirieva), in The Eightheen Century Diaspora of Italian Music and Musicians. Comp. by Albert Dunning, edit. by Reinhard Strohm. Italy, Cremona: The Foundation Pietro Antonio Locatelli, Speculum Musicae series. Vol. VIII, 2001, pp. 211-253.

    “When Did Shostakovich Stop Using Jewish Idiom?” in Schostakowitch und das juedische musikalische Erbe (Schostakowitsch-Studien, Bd 3). Eds. E. Kuhn, A. Wehrmeyer and Günter Wolter. Studia slavica musicologica, Bd. 18.  Berlin: Verlag Ernst Kuhn, 2001, pp.114-130.

    “Songs of Russian-Soviet Emigrants and the Marginal Tradition”, in Twentieth Century European Narratives: Tradition and Innovation, Proceedings of The Sixth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI), 16-21 August, 1998, Haifa University, CD ROM, ISBN 965-555-067-2. 2001.

    “The Conflict Between Nationalistic and Pluralistic Tradition in Russian Musical Narratives”, in Twentieth Century European Narratives: Tradition and Innovation, Proceedings of The Sixth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI), 16-21 August, 1998, Haifa University, CD ROM, ISBN 965-555-067-2. 2001.

    “The Ballet Icarus by Sergei Slonimsky as an Ethical Key to the Composer’s Music”, in Twentieth Century European Narratives: Tradition and Innovation, Proceedings of The Sixth Conference of the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (ISSEI), 16-21 August, 1998, Haifa University, CD ROM, ISBN 965-555-067-2. 2001.

    “Composer as Victim” [in Russian], in D. Shostakovich: mezhdu mgnoveniem i vechnost’yu. domenty, materialy, stat’i [D. Shostakovich: Between Instant and Eternity: Documents, Materials, Essays], ed. L. Kovnatskaya. St Petersburg: “Kompozitor”, 2000, pp. 751-761. English version by the author, ms.

    “Knight of Russian Music: Defining Russia Musically by Richard Taruskin”, in The European Legacy 3:6, 1999, pp.65-75.

    “Yakiv Andriïovich Timchenko (Materials to the biography)” [in Ukrainian], in Ukraïns’kiy Muzichniy Arkhiv , I, Kiïv: Centrmuzinform, 1995, pp. 68-73.

    “Was it Really a Suicide?”(concerning the biography of Berezovsky) [in Russian], in Iskusstvo Leningrada, no. 2, 1990, pp. 72-76.

    “Problems of Research in Russian Choral Music of the Second Half of the 18th Century” [in Russian], in Problems of Musical Science, vol. VII. Moscow: Sovetskii Kompozitor, 1989, pp. 193-204.

    “Sergei Slonimsky and his Maria Stuart”  [in Russian], in  Muzyka Rossii , vol. VII. Moscow:  Sovetskii kompozitor, 1988, pp. 35-46.

    “The Fate of the Work - the Fate of the Composer” (About the creative work and life of N. Karetnikov) [in Russian], in Sovetskii balet, no. 4, 1987, pp. 26-28.

    “Non-subject to Doubt in Victory” (about definition of generic sources in the song The Sacred War) [in Russian], in Sovetskaya muzyka, no. 5, 1987, pp. 20-22.

    “Dedicated to the Poet” (about Romansero of Love and Death by N.Sidel'nikov) [in Russian], in Muzyka Rossii, vol. V. Moscow: Sovetskii  Kompositor, 1984, pp. 235-248.

    “The Unknown Concerto by M. S. Berezovsky” [in Russian], in Pamyatniki kul’tury: Novye otkrytia. Annual collection of the Academy of Science of the USSR. St. Petersburg: Nauka, 1983, pp. 187-193.

    “The Vocal Works by Sergei Slonimsky” [in Russian], in Composers of the Russian Federation.  Moscow: Sovetskii Kompozitor, 1982, pp. 31-55.

    “Russian Choral Concertos in the Creative Works of Italian Composers, Working in Russia in the Second Half of the 18th Century” [in Russian], in Musica Antica, vol. VI, 1982, pp. 855-867. Bydgoshch, Poland.

    “On Life and Creative Works by M.S.Berezovsky” [in Russian], in Sovetskaya muzyka, 1978, .no. 6, pp. 110-116.

     “The Art People Need” (about symphonic works of B. Arapov) [in Russian], in Sovetskaya muzyka, 1976. no. 5, pp. 14-18.

     “From the Musical Heritage of Bortniansky” [in Russian], in Stranitsy istorii 

    russkoi muzyki. Ed. E. M. Orlova. St. Petersburg: Muzyka, 1973, pp. 3-17.


    Book reviews

    Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe by Mark Krol. Boydell Press, 2014. Israel Studies in Musicology Online, Vol. 13, 2015-16.

    The Mystery of Chopin’s Préludes, by Anatole Leikin. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015. Israel Studies in Musicology Online, Vol. 13, 2015-16.

    Klezmer’s Afterlife: An Ethnography of the Jewish Music Revival in Poland and Germany by Magdalena Waligórska, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. SEEJ 61.1 (Spring 2017)

    Between Religion and Rationality. Essays in Russian Literature and Culture by Joseph Frank,  Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 2010. The European Legacy.

    Cheese, pears, and history in a proverb by Massimo Montanari. Translated by Beth Archer Brombert. (Arts and traditions of the table: perspectives on culinary history). Columbia University Press, 2010. The European Legacy.

    Jewish Identities: Nationalism, Racism, and Utopianism in Twentieth-Century Music by Klára Móricz. California Studies in 20th-Century Music. University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2008. Book review for The European Legacy, 18:3, 2013. ​​​​​​​

    Leo Zeitlin, Chamber music. Edited by Paula Eisenstein Baker and Robert S. Nelson. A-R Editions, Inc., Middleton, Wisconsin, 2009. Min-ad: Israel Studies in Musicology .Online,

    Writing Through Music: Essays on Music, Culture, and Politics by Jann Pasler. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. The European Legacy, 16:3, June 2011.

    The Art of Being Jewish in Modern Times.  Ed. By Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett and Jonathan Karp. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, 2008.  The European Legacy, 16:2, 2011.

    Music and the Numinous by Richard Elfyn Jones. Series “Consciousness, Literature & the Arts”. Amsterdam-New York, 2007. The European Legacy, 15-6, October 2010.

    Philosophy of Modern Music by Theodor W. Adorno. Translated by Anne G. Mitchell and Wesley V. Blomster. Continuum, 2007. The European Legacy, 15-4, July 2010.

    History of Music in Russia from Antiquity to 1800 by Nikolai Findeizen. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2008. Eighteenth-Century Music, 6:2. 248-250.

    The Polyphony of Jewish Culture by Benjamin Harshav. Stanford University Press, 2007. The European Legacy, 14:6, October 2009.

    The Pearl. A True Tale of Forbidden Love in Catherine the Great's Russia by Douglas Smith. New Heaven & London: Yale University Press, 2008. Early Music America

    ​​​​​Bach’s Cycle, Mozart’s Arrow by Karol Berger. An Essay on the Origins of Musical Modernity. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2007. The European Legacy, 14:5, August 2009.

    The Dictatorship of Sex: Lifestyle Advised for Soviet Masses by Frances Bernstein. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007. The European Legacy, 14:2, the second issue of 2009. ​​​​​​​

    Food Is Culture by Massimo Montanari. Translated from Italian by Albert Sonnenfeld. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. The European Legacy, 13:5, August 2008.

    Literary Music: Writing Music in Contemporary Fiction by Stephen Benson. Ashgate, Aldershot: 2006. The European Legacy 13:3, May 2008.

    Five Operas and a Symphony. Word and Music in Russian Culture by Boris Gasparov. In series Russian Literature and Thought. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2005. Slavic Review, 2007, 66:4, p. 771.

    and the Symphony, by David Butler Cannata. Bibliotheca Musicologica, University of Innsbruck, edited by Tilman Seebass, Volume IV. Innsbruck-Wien: Studien Verlag, 1999. Min-ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online,  2006.
    Essays on Music by Theodor W. Adorno. Selected, with Introduction, Commentary, and Notes by Richard Leppert. Translation by Susan H. Gillespie and others. Berkeley, Los Angeles Press, London: University of California Press, 2002. 760 pages. The European Legacy 11:3, 2005, pp. 354-355.

    The Petrine Revolution in Russian Culture. By James Cracraft. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England 2004. 560 pp.  The European Legacy 11:2, pp. 222-223.

    Authenticity and Fiction in the Russian Literary Journey, 1790-1840. By Andreas Schoenle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000) The European Legacy 2004. 8: 6, pp. 836-837.

    Vladimir Nabokov. By Neil Cornwell (Plymouth: Northcote House Publishers, 1999). The European Legacy 2003. 8:5, pp. 686-688.

    Muzychnaya kultura Belorusi XVIII stoletia. By Volha Dodziomava. Byelorussian State Academy of Music, 2003. Mastatstva, 3 (240), p. 54.

    Music in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Ed. by David Wyn Jones, Ashgate, 2000. Ad Parnassum, 2003. vol. I/1, April, pp. 161-164.

    Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution. By Paul Metzner (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1998). The European  Legacy 2002. 7:4 , pp.141-143.

    Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Shostakovich: A Theory of Musical Incongruities. By Esti Sheinberg, Ashgate, 2000. Slavic and East European Journal. 2001.46/4, pp. 805-807.

    Shostakovich: A Life. By Laurel E. Fay (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Slavic and East European Journal. 2001. 45/3, pp. 576-578.

    Tchaikovsky Through Others’ Eyes. Compiled, edited and with an Introduction by Alexander Poznansky. Translations from Russian by Ralph C. Burr, Jr. & Robert Bird (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1999). Slavic and East European Journal. 2001. 45/1, pp. 150-151.

    Mussorgsky:  Eight Essays and an Epilogue. By Richard Taruskin, Foreword by Caryl Emerson (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; second printing, 1997). The European Legacy 1999. 4:4, pp.112-116.

    Last Updated Date : 21/05/2024